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dissabte, 9 d’abril de 2016

¿Qué sería Darwin, Socialista o Liberal?

There is a connection between Darwin and economics, but it isn’t in the way Frank thinks it is.9 In October of 1825, Darwin matriculated at Edinburgh University where, as a matter of general course curricula, he studied the works of the great Enlightenment thinkers, including David Hume, Edward Gibbon, and Adam Smith. A decade later, upon his return home from the five-year voyage around the world on HMS Beagle, Darwin revisited these works, reconsidering their implications in light of the new theory he was developing.10 Although Darwin does not reference Smith directly, Darwin scholars are largely in agreement that he modeled his theory of natural selection after Smith’s theory of the invisible hand.11 Compare, by example, these two descriptions from Smith and Darwin:

Every individual is continually exerting himself to find out the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command. … He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776, Book IV, Chapter II

It may be said that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinising, throughout the world, every variation, even the slightest; rejecting that which is bad, preserving and adding up all that is good; silently and insensiblyworking, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement of each organic being in relation to its organic and inorganic conditions of life.

Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 1859, p. 84

These descriptors—invisible hand and natural selection—are so powerful, and so deeply annealed into our thought and culture, that it is difficult not to think of them as forces of nature, such as gravity and electromagnetism, or as mechanical systems, such as gears and pulleys. But they are not forces or mechanisms, because there is nothing acting on the agents in the system in such a causal manner. Instead, Smith’s invisible hand and Darwin’s natural selection are descriptions of processes that naturally occur in the economies of nature and society. The causal mechanisms behind the invisible hand and natural selection lie elsewhere in the system—within the agents themselves—which is why Smith invested so much work on understanding the natural sympathies of people, and Darwin advanced so much effort toward comprehending the natural tendencies of organisms.

If there is a connection between evolution and economics—between Charles Darwin and Adam Smith—it is this: Life is intricate, complex, and looks designed, so our folk biology intuition leads us to infer that there must be an intelligent designer, a God. Analogously, economies are intricate, complex, and look designed, so our folk economic intuition is to infer that we need an intelligent designer, a Government. But as Smith and Darwin demonstrated, life and economies are not intelligently designed from the top down; they spontaneously arise out of simpler systems from the bottom up. Natural selection and the invisible hand explain precisely how individual organisms and people, pursuing their own self-interest in their struggle to survive and make a living, generate the emergent property of complex ecologies and economies. Charles Darwin and Adam Smith each in their unique way trying to solve a specific problem, independently stumbled across an elegant solution to what turns out to be a larger and overarching phenomenon of the emergence of complexity out of simplicity. Apparent design from the bottom up does not imply the necessity of intentional design from the top down.
Fragmento del artículo de Michael Shermer reseñando críticamente el ensayo de Robert Frank 'Why Libertarians Should Support Many Forms of Government Intervention'


La penalización de los clientes de las prostitutas es una aberración jurídica

Juridiquement, elle repose sur une monstruosité, rarement vue dans l'histoire du droit. En effet, en supprimant tout délit de racolage, la loi établit la parfaite et totale légalité de l'activité visant à se prostituer. Or, dans le même temps, elle fait de l'achat d'actes sexuels, une infraction pénale, c'est-à-dire un acte strictement et systématiquement illégal. Ainsi, une activité totalement légale (se prostituer) génère un acte parfaitement illégal et pénalement réprimé (avoir recours aux services d'une prostituée)!
Artículo completo, aquí

Francia, paraíso fiscal de políticos y... ¡periodistas!

En France, les 36 823 titulaires d’une carte de presse bénéficient d’un abattement fiscal de 7 650 euros. Ce cadeau date de 1934. À l’époque, les journalistes, au même titre qu’une centaine de professions, bénéficiaient d’un abattement de 30 %, destiné à couvrir les frais inhérents à leur fonction. En 1996, la droite avait supprimé cet avantage pour toutes les professions concernées. Mais en 1998, le gouvernement Jospin décida de rétablir l’abattement de 7 650 euros pour les seuls journalistes ! Un privilège fiscal qui, a
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Azafatas y Velo islámico

El uniforme de las azafatas de Air France para vuelos a Teheran que ha provocado su revuelta
Este era el uniforme de las azafatas de las líneas aéreas de Irán en 1960

Este es el uniforme actual de las azafatas de Iranian Air

Villarejo: 'Podemos está demostrando que le interesa más el poder que los ciudadanos”

El jurista Carlos Jiménez Villarejo (Málaga, 1935) vivió con entusiasmo e ilusión el nacimiento de Podemos. Se incorporó a sus filas y llegó a ser eurodiputado de esa formación tras las elecciones de mayo de 2014. Renunció al cargo poco después pero no por razones de sintonía política. En cambio, sí que fueron razones de índole política las que le llevaron a anunciar meses más tarde que abandonaba la formación que dirige Pablo Iglesias. No entiende que no faciliten la elección de Pedro Sánchez como presidente del Gobierno y aparte del mismo a Mariano Rajoy y el PP.
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El desnudo de Donald Trump censurado en EEUU se expone en una galería de Londres

Más información, aquí

65 películas gratis de Charlie Chaplin Online

Ver lista de películas y sus enlaces

¿Ha comenzado la segunda 'Gran Depresión? Comparación entre hoy y 1930

The Greater Depression has started. Most people don't know it because they can neither confront the thought nor understand the differences between this one and the last.

As a climax approaches, many of the things that you've built your life around in the past are going to change and change radically. The ability to adjust to new conditions is the sign of a psychologically healthy person.

Look for the opportunity side of the crisis. The Chinese symbol for "crisis" is a combination of two other symbols - one for danger and one for opportunity.

The dangers that society will face in the years ahead are regrettable, but there's no point in allowing anxiety, frustration, or apathy to overcome you. Face the future with courage, curiosity, and optimism rather than fear. You can be a winner, and if you plan carefully, you will be. The great period of change will give you a chance to regain control of your destiny. And that in itself is the single most important thing in life. This depression can give you that opportunity; it's one of the many ways the Greater Depression can be a very good thing for both you as an individual and society as a whole.
Leer artículo completo, aquí

'El gasto público no es un derecho, es el resultado de una economía productiva donde es atractivo invertir y crear empleo'

Para que exista el sector público hace falta un sector privado que crezca para que pueda pagar impuestos. Y en 2016-17 el mundo se encamina a un crecimiento muy pobre. La semana que viene, los mismos que nunca han creado una empresa ni un puesto de trabajo desde su esfuerzo, seguirán mareando la perdiz para pactar sobre cuánto debe usted ganar y cómo se lo debe gastar. Eso sí, poniendo cara de velocidad. DANIEL LACALLE

Las consecuencias de los 'Panama Papaers' hasta hoy, país por país

Noticias de mi pueblo