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divendres, 8 d’abril de 2016

¿El fin de la globalización tal como la conocemos?

At first, it seems like a small thing. Reuters reports this morning that the European Union is weighing whether to start requiring visas from Canadian and US visitors to the region. This would be an incredibly shortsighted thing to do, given the lucrative tourist trade based on North Americans traveling to the continent. And it likely won’t happen.

But its mere discussion—a response to the US visa requirement’s for visitors from poorer parts of the EU such as Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria—underscores the very real backlash against pro-globalization economic ideology of the last 25 years. As the Wall Street Journal recently pointed out, the key forces of globalization—rising international trade and capital flows—have stalled out. In many senses, they’re foundering on a particularly tricky bit of globalization that is now a snag between the EU and the US: The flow of people.

The movements of people in recent decades has pushed the political limits of globalization in the rich world. The evidence is everywhere. It’s in Donald J. Trump’s ugly comments about Mexican immigrants and his promises to build an impregnable wall between the US and its southern neighbor. It’s manifest in the complaints about an influx of eastern Europeans in the the UK, now fueling the push for Brexit.

The neofascist Golden Dawn party has held Nuremberg-style rallies in Greece, amid ongoing economic strain and the more recent migration crisis. In Germany, Frau Merkel’s determinate promise—”we’ll manage it”—to deal with an influx of immigrants collided headlong with real anxiety among the electorate. Her party suffered major losses in recent state elections, including to the anti-immigrant AfP party. It’s legitimate and natural for people to be concerned about the free flow of people in light of a string of attacks (see San Bernardino, Paris, Brussels) tied to terrorists who either came from other countries or crossed borders in order to train or plan with terrorist groups. And studies have long found that when it comes to the formation of anti-immigrant sentiment, noneconomic concerns are more influential than pocketbook worries such as the effect of immigration on wages.

There are still economic factors at work, though. And the failure of globalization to generate real gains for a majority of the population in rich nations comes alongside the anxiety that’s now being expressed in opposition to both immigration and other elements of free-trade focused ideology.

In his excellent recent book Global Inequality, former World Bank economist Branko Milanovic points out that while globalization has provided huge benefits, the vast majority of those benefits have accrued to people at the bottom of global income distribution—effectively those who’ve been lifted out of poverty in Asia—and the world’s super rich. Meanwhile, those who would count among the middle-classes in the world’s affluent nations have seen remarkably little improvement in their standards of living in decades.

La UE estudia exigir visado a estadounidenses y canadienses

The European Union executive is considering whether to make U.S. and Canadian citizens apply for visas before traveling to the bloc, a move that could raise tensions as Brussels negotiates a trade pact with Washington.

Only Britain and Ireland have opt-outs from the 28-nation EU's common visa policy and the European Commission must decide by April 12 whether to demand visas from countries who have similar requirements in place for one or more EU state.

Washington and Ottawa both demand entry visas from Romanians and Bulgarians, whose states joined the EU in 2007. The United States also excludes Croatians, Cypriots and Poles from a visa waiver scheme offered to other EU citizens.

"A political debate and decision is obviously needed on such an important issue. But there is a real risk that the EU would move towards visas for the two (Americans and Canadians)," an EU source said.

Según ha podido conocer El Confidencial Digital por fuentes presenciales, los agricultores franceses amedrentaron a uno de los conductores de los camiones que sufrieron el ataque. Relatan que varias decenas de personas participaron en la intimidación del transportista.

Tras amenazar al conductor, le forzaron a bajar de la cabina y le obligaron a abrir la cisterna para derramar sobre la carretera toda la mercancía. La escena se producía ante la mirada impotente de otros camioneros españoles y sin la presencia, hasta ese momento, de agentes de la Gendarmería.

Según las fuentes consultadas, los asaltantes agredieron a uno de los camioneros mientras intentaba grabar los hechos con su móvil. Le zarandearon, le empujaron y le requisaron finalmente el dispositivo. Había recurrido al teléfono para que quedara constancia del incidente a través de fotografías y vídeos. Tuvo en cuenta que después debía dar explicaciones ante el propietario de la mercancía de lo que le había sucedido al producto.

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